Top 10 astronautics factsAstronautics quiz
This plaque, carried by Pioneer 10 and Pioneer 11 space probes, describes the location of the Sun. What are the points at the ends of the lines?
Pulsars. Each of the line includes binary encoding of pulsar frequency, so these can be easily recognized. The hydrogen spin-flip transition frequency is used as the unit of time (Hydrogen particle at the top of the image).
Does the candle burn more or less violently in zero gravity?
Less violently. In zero gravity, no convection occurs, that normally shapes the flame, disperses CO2 and brings fresh air to the wick. Without convection, CO2 from combustion does not disperse as readily and tends to smother the flame
How long did it take Apollo 11 flight to reach the Moon?
3 days. It took 1 minute of flight to reach Mach 1 and 12 minutes to enter Earth's orbit. After one and a half orbits, the third-stage engine pushed the spacecraft onto its three-day long travel to the Moon.
What was the name of spacecraft in which the first three astronauts were killed?
Apollo I. Apollo 1 was scheduled to be the first manned mission to the Moon. On January 27, 1967, a cabin fire during a launch pad test at Cape Canaveral killed all three crew members (pictured). The ignition source was never identified, but many lethal design and construction flaws were identified after the accident. The manned phase of the project was delayed for 20 months while those problems were corrected.
Where is the Baikonur Cosmodrome?
In Kazakhstan. Baikonur Cosmodrome is located in the center of Kazakhstan on the right bank of the Syr Darya river. Both the space launch facility and the neighboring city of Baikonur are rented and administered by the Russian Federation.
On which continent is the main spaceport of the European Space Agency located?
In South America. The Guiana Space Centre is a French and European spaceport near Kourou in French Guiana since 1968. The location was chosen as it fulfils the two major geographical requirements of such a site: it is quite close to the equator, so that the spinning earth can impart some extra velocity to the rockets for free when launched eastward, and it has open sea to the east, so that lower stages of rockets and debris from launch failures cannot fall on human habitations.
Mars colonisation is a hype topic. What is the biggest threat for those wishing to take a part in a journey to Mars?
Cosmic rays. The only efficient protection against high energetic cosmic radiation, one we are granted with, is Earth's magnetic field. Both during a long flight to Mars and through the stay on the planet, that did not form electromagnetic field, astronauts would be exposed to ionization.
The first American astronauts insisted on the installation of an extra element to their spacecraft. What was it?
Window. The Early prototype Mercury spacecraft had only two portholes, but the Mercury astronauts demanded a larger window to be installed, not only for the view but also for the orientation. The latter proved invaluable on their last mission, when instrument failure required visual orientation.